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01/03/2009 High-temperature molecular Bose-Einstein Condensate.

Dear Sir/Madam, formation and optical properties of molecular high-temperature (above liquid nitrogen) BEC can be demonstrated in any physical and chemical laboratory. It takes three months. You should only present: a) special non-resonant Raman spectrometer for measurement of interference from two signals (it can be easy modified based on standard Raman spectrometer); b) low-temperature (liquid nitrogen) two beam quvette for Raman spectroscopy; c) some standard chemicals from catalog. Besides, you should sign agreement of confidentiality, special agreement, and pay all expenses.

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12/15/2008 Efficiency of single junction silicon and organic solar cells.

Solar cells
.

First generation. SINGLE UNCTION SILICON AND ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS BASED ON STANDARD MATERIALS.
The way from disordered silicon solar cells with efficiency 1-2% to monocrystalline silicon solar cells with efficiency 24% took 65 years. The mankind has no additional 65 years for development of high efficiency (25-30%) organic solar cells. The question is: what we should change in organizing structure of science and business for development flexible, cheap and high efficiency organic (polymeric) solar cells in the nearest years.

Second generation. SOLAR CELLS BASED ON MATERIALS WITH MACROSCOPIC QUANTUM PROPTERTIES.
In solar cells, based on standard inorganic and organic semiconductors, photons with energy greater than the semiconductor band gap convert excess of energy into heat. In solar cells based on semiconductors with macroscopic quantum properties photons with energy greater than the semiconductor band gap convert excess of energy into solar cell voltage. Efficiency of single unction solar cells based on materials with macroscopic quantum properties can reach 45-55% with near 100% conversion of adsorbed solar energy to electrical energy.


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08/20/2008 Macroscopic quantum state and invers Peierls transition in quasi-one-dimensional conjugated systems. Invers Peierls transition and model of macroscopic quantum state.

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07/28/2008 Energy-source and transportation problems of future humankind. Fundamental mistakes of scientists.

There is one and only one solution of energy-source and transportation problems of future humankind. The key to this solution is development of high temperature superconductors for energy transport without losses and development organic semiconductors with high temperature macroscopic quantum properties for high efficiency conversion of solar energy to electrical and chemical energy without pollution and losses. All other ways and methods lead to pollution and energy losses. Thus they are only illusions.

Mankind has no high-temperature superconductors and organic semiconductors with high-temperature macroscopic quantum properties today because of fundamental mistakes of scientists. These mistakes have affected all sections of material science and condensed matter physics associated with coherent and macroscopic quantum properties.

For the last fifty years a whole row of new substances with coherent and macroscopic quantum properties were discovered. These are: 5 type of high temperature superconductors (HTS), amorphous semiconductors (AS), amorphous metals (AM), polydiacetylenes (PDA), free-standing films of polyacetylene (fs-PA), synthetic metals, fullerenes, carbon nano-tubes (CNT) and graphene. However, some of their fundamental properties were not satisfied for application. For example: HTS are characterized by low critical current; AS, AM and composites of fullerenes are low ordered, PDA are characterized by low conjugated length; fs-PA films are low stable; CTN are the mixture of molecules with different chirality. And in spite of all the intellectual and financial resources applied so far scientists have failed to improve their fundamental properties. As a result of it, no one of these materials was developed and found applications in high-tech industry. Analysis of scientific publications shows that most substances with superconductive properties, which were elaborated for the last 30 years, contain high concentration of defects. Specific of macroscopic quantum state is abnormally strong sensitivity to "internal" defects and insensitivity to some 'external". Thus the fundamental question for any substance with macroscopic quantum properties is: what kinds of defects prevent phase transition to macroscopic quantum state. If we can answer this question we can develop high-temperature superconductors satisfied the requirements of high-tech industry.

At present there are two obstacles at the way of development of real high temperature superconductors and organic semiconductors with high-temperature macroscopic quantum properties. The first obstacle is misunderstanding between chemists and physicists, which looks like unconformity of their requirements to electronic and chemical structure of superconductors. The second obstacle is a wrong business model, which leads to crisis in the science. At present any fundamental scientific result in the field of material science become equivalent to money. This principle is convenient for development of new dye or new medicine, but it absolutely unacceptable for development of high-temperature superconductors. First of all, because of discovery of real high-temperature superconductors has no price.

Supermat Intl. has developed the basic principles for preparation of materials with high temperature macroscopic quantum properties. Based on it 3D coherently ordered nano-composites of conjugated macromolecules and carbon nanotubes with macroscopic quantum properties were elaborated.

We are sure that low critical current of high-temperature superconductors is bound up with disorder and defects. Development of high-temperature 3D coherently ordered superconductive ceramics, which support high critical current take only two years.


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05/03/2008 Non resonant interaction of laser light with conjugated macromolecules in macroscopic quantum state is first order nonadiabatic process. Firts order nonadiabatic process.

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02/04/2007 Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of 3D coherently ordered nano-gels and nano-composites formed by conjugated macromolecules.

INTRODUCTION to CARS

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of normal thermodynamic phase is a completely parametric process. Primary acts of Raman scattering lead to vibrational excitations. These excitations modulate dielectric constant and another photons are scattered at a modulated medium forming CARS. The scattered signal increases quadratically with species concentration and beam interaction length, and decreases very fast at increase of sample temperature. Intensity of CARS signal is very sensitive to sample structure, parameters of pump laser beam and conditions of spectra registration.

INTRODUCTION to NPA

Nanopolyacetylene (NPA) is a optical polymeric material, which possesses macroscopic quantum properties. At room temperature it exists simultaneously in two thermodynamic phases - normal and macroscopic quantum. The transitions between these phases depend on NPA structure and thermodynamic parameters (temperature, pressure and so on). Macroscopic quantum phase of NPA possess coherence of zero-point vibrations in the ground state. Primary acts of Raman scattering of macroscopic quantum phase of NPA leads to coherent vibrational excitations and following increasing of Raman scattering efficiency proportionally to the amplitude of dielectric constant modulation.

EXPERIMENTAL (Anti-Stokes Raman scattering of NPA.)

1. It is shown that intensity of anti-Stokes Raman scattering of NPA is very sensitive to NPA structure, parameters of pump laser beam and conditions of spectra registration.

2. Depending on NPA quantum state two limited cases of anti-Stokes Raman scattering are experimentally observed.

(A) I anti-Stokes / I Stokes ratio at standard experimental conditions is very low. Extrapolation of this ratio to zero laser beam power allow one to suppose that initial quantum temperature (population of vibrational excitations) in macroscopic quantum phase of NPA is around 0 K.

(B) I anti-Stokes / I Stokes ratio at standard experimental conditions is very high. Extrapolation of this ratio to zero laser beam power allow one to suppose high population of vibrational excitations around this point.


ANALISIS

1. Raman scattering of NPA is macroscopic quantum process. It characterized by macroscopic delocalization of coherent vibrational excitations and abnormally high cross section of Raman scattering.

2. In contradiction with classical CARS this optical process is quasi-linear.

3. Intensity of Stokes and anti-Stokes coherent Raman scattering of NPA mainly depend on four factors:
a) Size of NPA sample;
b) Parameters of pump laser beam;
c) Parameters of thermodynamic transitions between macroscopic quantum and normal phase;
d) Decoherence time of coherent vibrational excitations.


CONCLUSION

Materials with macroscopic quantum properties based on conjugated macromolecules possess coherence of zero-point vibrations in the ground state. They display abnormally high efficiency of nonlinear optical processes such as second harmonic generation, sum frequency generation, third harmonic generation and so on. Besides they demonstrate effects of macroscopic quantum optical frequency multiplication and macroscopic quantum lasing, where signal is built up by repeated coherent addition of electronic or vibrational frequency and not by addition of intensities or amplitudes of electromagnetic waves.

APPLICATION in HIGH-TECH INDUSTRY (Conversion of solar energy to electrical and chemical energy.)

Materials with macroscopic quantum properties based on conjugated macromolecules can capture sunlight and multiply its frequency. They will be used:

a) for electricical energy production;
b) to break water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen;
c) to bonding and break molecular nitrogen.


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01/01/2007 Long range coherent interaction of zero-point vibrations of fundumentals in 3D ordered nano-gels and nano-composites of conjugated polymers is demonstrated for the first time.

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New articles will be published in the nearest time:

1. Macro-quantum phenomena in 3D coherently ordered conjugated macromolecules and nanoparticles.
2. Raman scattering of 3D coherently ordered nanostructures.
3. Signature of strong electron-phonon coupling in nanopolyacetylene.


e-mail: kobryan@nanopolyacetylene.com